Todo sobre los gastos comunes

Todo sobre los gastos comunes

La mala práctica de no pagar este ítem se puede deber a la desinformación frente al tema. ¿Quién está llamado a cobrarlos?, ¿Pueden establecerse gastos comunes diferenciados? Acá tratamos de responder estas inquietudes.

 

Los gastos comunes no son antojadizos. La obligación de concurrir al pago de los gastos comunes emana de la ley. En otras palabras, una vez que una persona adhiere a un régimen de copropiedad (es decir, cuando compra un departamento, vivienda o parcela acogida a este régimen), la procedencia de los cobros estará asociada al cumplimiento de las formalidades que exige la ley en este sentido, y no necesariamente a la aprobación o consentimiento del copropietario en particular. Salvo acuerdo en contrario, los arrendatarios estarán obligados al pago de los gastos comunes ordinarios y el dueño de los extraordinarios.

Es importante recordar que los acuerdos adoptados en las asambleas de copropietarios con las mayorías exigidas en la ley o en el reglamento de copropiedad obligan a todos los copropietarios, sea que hayan asistido o no a la sesión respectiva, y aun cuando no hayan concurrido con su voto favorable a su adopción.

A pesar de lo anterior, son frecuentes las discusiones entre copropietarios respecto a la procedencia o improcedencia de determinados cobros, bajo el pretexto que éstos corresponden a propietarios anteriores, que no concurrieron a su aprobación en la asamblea o bien, que ellos no utilizan determinados bienes o servicios del condominio, tales como ascensores, guardias o portones de acceso. Afortunadamente, la mayoría de estos puntos están tratados y regulados en la Ley N°19.537, sobre copropiedad inmobiliaria, cuyos aspectos más importantes, cito a continuación:

Sobre la obligación de contribuir

- Cada copropietario debe contribuir a los gastos comunes ordinarios y extraordinarios, en proporción al derecho que le corresponda en los bienes de dominio común, salvo que el reglamento de copropiedad establezca otra forma de contribución.

- La obligación del propietario de una unidad por los gastos comunes seguirá siempre al dominio de su unidad, aun respecto de los devengados antes de su adquisición (…), sin perjuicio del derecho del propietario para exigir el pago a su antecesor en el dominio.

- El hecho de que un copropietario no haga uso efectivo de un determinado servicio o bien de dominio común, o de que la unidad correspondiente permanezca desocupada por cualquier tiempo, no lo exime, en caso alguno, de la obligación de contribuir oportunamente al pago de los gastos comunes correspondientes.

- Si un condominio consta de diferentes sectores y comprende bienes o servicios destinados a servir únicamente a uno de esos sectores, el reglamento de copropiedad podrá establecer que los gastos comunes correspondientes a esos bienes o servicios serán sólo de cargo de los copropietarios de las unidades del respectivo sector…, sin perjuicio de la obligación de dichos copropietarios de concurrir a los gastos comunes generales de todo el condominio.

Sobre los cobro y las sanciones

- El cobro de los gastos comunes se efectuará por el administrador del condominio, de conformidad a las normas de la ley de copropiedad, al reglamento y a los acuerdos de la asamblea.

- Cada copropietario debe pagar los gastos comunes con la periodicidad y en los plazos que establezca el reglamento de copropiedad. Si incurre en mora, la deuda devengará el interés máximo convencional para operaciones no reajustables o el inferior a éste que establezca el reglamento de copropiedad.

- Si una unidad pertenece a dos o más personas, cada una de ellas será solidariamente responsable del pago de la totalidad de los gastos comunes.

- El reglamento de copropiedad podrá autorizar al administrador para que, con el acuerdo del comité de administración, suspenda o requiera la suspensión del servicio eléctrico que se suministra a aquellas unidades cuyos propietarios se encuentren morosos en el pago de tres o más cuotas, continuas o discontinuas, de los gastos comunes.

- Si el condominio no dispusiere de sistemas propios de control para el paso de dicho servicio, las empresas que lo suministren, a requerimiento escrito del administrador y previa autorización del comité de administración, deberán suspender el servicio que proporcionen a aquellas unidades cuyos propietarios se encuentren en la misma situación descrita en el inciso anterior.

- En los juicios de cobro de gastos comunes, la notificación del requerimiento de pago al deudor, conjuntamente con la orden de embargo, se le notificarán personalmente o por cédula dejada en el domicilio que hubiere registrado en la administración del condominio o, a falta de éste, en la respectiva unidad que ha generado la demanda ejecutiva de cobro de gastos comunes. Lo cual facilita la notificación de la demanda de cobro.

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